St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that there are four essential components to the concept of a law: 1) an ordinance of reason 2) for the common good 3) given by the entity who has charge (or authority) over those subject to the law, and 4) promulgated, so that those subject to the law are aware of the law. For example: It would be an ordinance of reason, for the common good, for government to promulgate rules against turning humans into demonically possessed hellspawn when you are supposed to be mining supernatural energy from the bowels of the underworld. It seems so obvious- so what happened in this year’s reboot of the classic game DOOM?
Aside from a contract with the rulers of hell, it doesn’t look like there’s much law in DOOM. Though there are several types of law from a certain perspective, the absence of common legal structures is both understandable and important.
Lessig’s Four Flavors of Law
In an effort to explain the problem of copyright infringement in the context of the digital era, Lawrence Lessig suggested that there are really four categories of law: statutory (the laws “on the books”), economic (market incentives and disincentives), cultural (social norms, traditions, etc), and architectural (limits of physical possibility). Through this lens, we see an abundance of law in DOOM. Each of the four main characters presents each of these types of law:
VEGA, the non-judgmental AI Architecture
Created by Hayden, VEGA is an artificial intelligence that monitors and operates the facility. He explains state of affairs and limits of possibility and explains the architectural laws that govern the situation they face. VEGA does not have his own agenda, but only wishes to serve by providing factual information.
“Dr.” Samuel Hayden, Economics and market
The President and CEO of the Union Aerospace Corporation, Hayden is concerned with the economic impacts of the Doom Slayer’s choices. The massive loss of human life at the facility is secondary to his focus on efficiency and scientific progress.
Olivia Pierce: Corporate Cult-ture
The antagonist Olivia creates and enforces cultural law throughout her cult and her corporation. Hologramatic announcements and documents gathered in the game reveal the overlap between Olivia’s demonic cult and the corporate policies and guidelines at the UAC. Presumably, Hayden allowed this culture because it served his economic interests. Olivia maintained this culture because it served her interests of climbing Hell’s social ladder… or descending into Hell’s cesspool. I don’t know how that metaphor works for demons.
The Doom Slayer: Statute, Adjudication, and Enforcement
The Doom Slayer is the embodiment of statutory law. He is there to fix the runaway obsessions of cults and markets. He is there to ensure a fundamental floor of safety. As a bonus, he’s going to take care of the enforcement, too. In the first iteration of Doom, the player was a Marine stationed on Mars as part of a United Nations force. In this year’s version, he is an eternal killer of demons. In both versions, his purpose to ensure the safety of humanity and balance the risks and dangers of the UAC’s activities. His role is both to decide what the rule should be, and then ensure that the rule is followed.
Energy Law: Laws of physics, laws of people.
The core principle behind energy law is preventing energy extraction and distribution from wrecking needless destruction. Energy law works closely with limits of science and technology, and recognizes certain risks and dangers that are likely or inherent in certain situations. This is why there are rules about where and how oil companies can drill, or what levels of hazardous emissions are permissible for factories. Laws have to be adapted to the relevant circumstances. Sensible energy policies facilitate the extraction, processing, and use of fuels while minimizing risk and harm to the environment and humanity. In DOOM, this might include regulations and safety measures against unleashing extra-dimensional monstrosities upon mankind.
Conclusion: The Need For Enforcement and Monitoring.
Americans tend to fervently and piously believe in law as an institution – and that belief alone goes a long way to creating a stable society. However, the mere existence of a set of laws is not enough to bring order or safety. The laws must also be followed and enforced. Having laws that permit or forbid actions isn’t enough to change how people feel about the subject matter. Without proper enforcement, people will just act in whichever ways seem most convenient.
Upholding the law isn’t just abiding by it individually – it’s also the social effort of maintaining institutions and practices that hold people accountable. That’s why we monitor, audit, and certify. Someone needs to actually go check secret laboratories for secret underground catacombs for ritualistic sacrifices and 10-story high cyberdemons. Rules against opening up transdimensional portals to fulfill blood contracts with demonic powers are an important start, but they are not enough. Even obviously important laws can be ignored, and they are likely to be ignored if there is no enforcement or accountability.